• What is the least amount of people to recreate humanity in space?

    You know, because 2 is not enough due to genetic diversity.
    You know, because 2 is not enough due to genetic diversity.
    20 answers · 2 weeks ago
  • If society was wrong about humans and monogamy then what else?

    Best answer: Mating systems are not preserved in fossils, and mating system (monogamy, polyandry, polygyny, promiscuity etc.) are adaptive. That means it can change. Most primates, including lesser apes like the gibbon, are monogamous. Of course even monogamous species will cheat. Yet our closest relatives have different mating... show more
    Best answer: Mating systems are not preserved in fossils, and mating system (monogamy, polyandry, polygyny, promiscuity etc.) are adaptive. That means it can change. Most primates, including lesser apes like the gibbon, are monogamous. Of course even monogamous species will cheat. Yet our closest relatives have different mating systems. orangutans do not form pair bonds. Neither do chimps or bonobos. Gorillas are polygynous, with a single dominant male forming a family with multiple females. The dominant or silverback male is the only one allowed to have sex with his females, but of course cheating also happens. Chimpanzee females however may have sex with multiple males within the same troop. Bonobos have sex daily and frequently and it is a free for all. In fact, bonobos will have sex with juveniles.

    What about humans? Humans are mostly monogamous. However, there are some societies that have permitted plygyny and a small number practice polyandry (one woman having several husbands during her lifetime) although usually one at a time instead of several at the same time. Humans evolved as hunter/gatherers 150,000-200,000 years ago, and we evolved from an ape in Africa beginning about 5 million years ago. Since written records date back to no more than about 5,000 years or less for most human civilizations, we have no idea how humans and our ancestors mated for most of that 5 million years.

    Nevertheless, we can compare humans with our closest relatives and try to figure out. Anatomically, humans are different from all other primates in having the largest penis (bigger than those of the gorilla and chimp) of any primate. We are also the only primate to lack a penile bone. Humans also differ from other primates in having small canine teeth. Indeed, Ardipithecus, which is possibly our ancestor that lived 4.5 million years ago, has reduced canine teeth. The canine teeth and the large penis inform us how our ancestors may have mated. Scientists interpret the reduced canine teeth as evidence of reduced male-male combat. Male-male combat usually occur in species that compete for the right to mate. If males do not fight over females, then individuals with reduced canines are not disadvantaged and they have a good chance of mating. If males do not fight over females for the right to mate, they may in fact cooperate with each other by forming troops in order to survive. Since humans evolved in the dangerous African savanna, forming troops with multiple males would indeed help our ancestors survive. Alone, a single human is no match for lions, leopards and hyenas. However, if human ancestors formed troops, they can beat back predators like lions, as Masai warriors do by surrounding a lion and spearing it to death.

    If human males formed troops and they do not fight each other for the right to mate, that would mean that humans could not have been monogamous when we first evolved. Indeed chimps also form troops but for a different purpose. They form troops with multiple males to defend territories inside forests. Chimps too do not beat up each other over the right to mate but instead they have evolved a longer penis (than the gorilla) with huge testicles, so they instead engage in a war of the penis. It means only chimps with a long penis and the ability to store a lot of sperms in their testicles managed to put enough sperms inside a female chimp to have a good chance of having one of his sperms fertilize an egg even though a female chimp may have mated with another male earlier. The long penis put sperms closer to the uterus so that they have a smaller distance to swim. The human penis is longer than the chimp penis, and therefore we can put sperm close to the uterus as well. In fact scientists point out that the human penis is shaped in such a way that it can shovel sperms that are already inside the female out of her body. Female humans also have the unique ability to have multiple orgasms, and that allows them to have sex with many males and still enjoy it. She may want to do that because if she mates with multiple males, they may all think that they may be the father and they won't harm her child when it is born. Therefore it benefits the female to have sex with multiple males too.

    If human anatomy and physiology suggest that both male and female humans originally evolved to have multiple sex partners, then when did humans (or our ancestors) stopped being promiscuous and started demanding monogamy? We may not be able to know for sure, but since most animals that are monogamous or polygynous in nature provide male parental care, then it may be the same for humans. Males want to make sure that their mates do not have sex with other males if they are responsible for raising young. Cuckoldry is costly to males, as males that raise the young of other males will end up having fewer young that are his, and so their genes would be lost if they do not demand and ensure monogamy. So, when did it happen that males were able to live without forming troops and they needed to provide parental care?

    The likely answer is that agriculture enabled human males to stop forming multi-male troops. They could settle down and raise a family of their own, without help from other males. That also mean that they are now solely responsible for raising their own children, since no other males will help them out by bringing back food to share with the entire troops. Agriculture was invented only about 10,000 years ago. That means it was a rather recent change if humans changed from being promiscuous to being monogamous. If the change is so recent, it is little wonder that some societies still practice or tolerate polygamy and even promiscuity. Indeed some humans still live in hunter/gatherer groups with multiple males. Indeed many of these types of groups still practice open marriages, and the men allow their wives to have extramarital sex.

    As to your point about scientists not knowing everything, that is of course correct. Scientists rely on facts, and sometimes it is not so easy to gather facts. Indeed humans are not animals that are born with instincts so that they all act alike. We can act differently as individuals or as different populations. Our behavior and culture can also change if our environment changes. Indeed native Americans were traditionally promiscuous (both men and women are allowed to have sex with any other freely), as they live in tribes with multiple males forming troops to defend themselves. In contrast, monogamy is practiced almost universally in agricultural and industrial societies in which males are responsible for parental care.
    12 answers · 1 week ago
  • Where do you think man kind is heading in evolution?

    Best answer: organisms adapt to a changing environment. Right now the environment seems to be changing towards higher temperatures. If the trend continues humans would need to adapt to survive. Ways to adapt to a hotter environment includes darkening of the skin, less body hair, longer arms and legs, and perhaps less clothing... show more
    Best answer: organisms adapt to a changing environment. Right now the environment seems to be changing towards higher temperatures. If the trend continues humans would need to adapt to survive. Ways to adapt to a hotter environment includes darkening of the skin, less body hair, longer arms and legs, and perhaps less clothing being worn.
    10 answers · 1 week ago
  • Do you agree that the theory of evolution is not fact? Theories are not facts, they are models that attempt to make sense of the facts.?

    Best answer: The ingenious diversity of living things never occurs by chance. Fossils and other mischiefs were fabricated by the genetic manipulators to examine intelligence of the human species. The intricate scenario has already been revealed, so I hope you find the revealed counsel of YHWH.
    Best answer: The ingenious diversity of living things never occurs by chance. Fossils and other mischiefs were fabricated by the genetic manipulators to examine intelligence of the human species. The intricate scenario has already been revealed, so I hope you find the revealed counsel of YHWH.
    17 answers · 2 weeks ago
  • Has biology as a science been hijakced by political correctness?

    Best answer: No PC is a US thing or at least culturally oriented in a few other places. Science is international. Chromosomes or biochemical compounds behave the same wherever the microscope is located. However, it is possible that for political or religious reasons some countries attempt to influence, not the biology itself... show more
    Best answer: No
    PC is a US thing or at least culturally oriented in a few other places.
    Science is international. Chromosomes or biochemical compounds behave the same wherever the microscope is located.

    However, it is possible that for political or religious reasons some countries attempt to influence, not the biology itself of course, but the teaching of biology.
    By the way, there have had been some attempts of hijacking biology teaching in the US by religious lobbies. And indeed, the average biology knowledge of American population is on the low side until secondary.
    Fortunately, the university level is as good as anywhere else.
    13 answers · 2 weeks ago
  • Is there a breathing device which makes it possible to breath in oxygen from seawater like fish do?

    Best answer: Not as far as I know. The thing is that we absorb oxygen into the blood from air and fish absorb oxygen into the blood from water. The point being that fish don't make breathable (to us) air or oxygen. So if we made a device that worked like fish gills it would have to be connected intravenously.
    Best answer: Not as far as I know. The thing is that we absorb oxygen into the blood from air and fish absorb oxygen into the blood from water. The point being that fish don't make breathable (to us) air or oxygen. So if we made a device that worked like fish gills it would have to be connected intravenously.
    4 answers · 6 days ago
  • Why have sex?

    Why do people have sex? Is it really necessary? Why can't we just do bacteria things and split in half, with no body fluids necessary. Why do sex?
    Why do people have sex? Is it really necessary? Why can't we just do bacteria things and split in half, with no body fluids necessary. Why do sex?
    6 answers · 1 week ago
  • Are genetic mutations ALWAYS random?

    Best answer: Yes, genetic mutations can be caused by environmental factors. Read the article linked below for an explanation of the various types of gene mutations and how they occur.
    Best answer: Yes, genetic mutations can be caused by environmental factors. Read the article linked below for an explanation of the various types of gene mutations and how they occur.
    7 answers · 1 week ago
  • Why do some humans develop incestuous feelings towards siblings, aunts, parents, and disturbingly their children?

    Cats do this. Would humans all do this if they grew up in the wild? This is all so depressing
    Cats do this. Would humans all do this if they grew up in the wild? This is all so depressing
    4 answers · 6 days ago
  • How can I improve my genetics?

    Best answer: you can't improve your genetics

    Nobody knows how epigenetics work. We just know that environmental factors (such as famines) influence later generations (such as having lighter-weight babies)
    Best answer: you can't improve your genetics

    Nobody knows how epigenetics work. We just know that environmental factors (such as famines) influence later generations (such as having lighter-weight babies)
    7 answers · 1 week ago
  • Evolution and Natural Selection?

    Best answer: Because many species are declining because of human activity, including over hunting, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change due to burning of fossil fuel. Such activities are not part of natural selection in the past. Therefore we need to stop doing these things where necessary in order to prevent loss... show more
    Best answer: Because many species are declining because of human activity, including over hunting, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change due to burning of fossil fuel. Such activities are not part of natural selection in the past. Therefore we need to stop doing these things where necessary in order to prevent loss of biodiversity.

    For example, if some land needs to be set aside to protect some species, then we do it because we are not actually helping endangered species, we simply refrain from doing things that can destroy them. To put it in sociological terms, we are not giving money to someone who is poor, we are instead helping him/her by not taking money from them. We do not own the earth. We are part of it. We are not entitled to destroy it wantonly to enrich ourselves.
    7 answers · 1 week ago
  • Why do most biologists always think that race and ethnicity are meaningless concepts?

    Best answer: Meaningless concepts? Not really, you overstate your case. Human races are social constructs because we are an extremely homogeneous species sharing mostly identical genes. But we also have big brains that are easily duped into pigheadedness. Other species have been divided into races and subspecies, but those... show more
    Best answer: Meaningless concepts? Not really, you overstate your case. Human races are social constructs because we are an extremely homogeneous species sharing mostly identical genes. But we also have big brains that are easily duped into pigheadedness.
    Other species have been divided into races and subspecies, but those instances involve much more genetic differences between groups.
    For human groups, there is more genetic diversity within groups than there is between groups. That means, if you're white, you're likely more related to some black populations than you are to some white populations.
    13 answers · 2 weeks ago
  • Why is alcohol bad for the human body?

    Alcoholic beverages are made mostly from fermented grains, and fruits/vegetables correct me if I'm wrong? Why then is the alcohol from the fermentation of natural foods, considered an addictive substance or "drug"?
    Alcoholic beverages are made mostly from fermented grains, and fruits/vegetables correct me if I'm wrong? Why then is the alcohol from the fermentation of natural foods, considered an addictive substance or "drug"?
    7 answers · 1 week ago
  • What dinosaurs have confirmed feather colors?

    I m looking to draw some dinos, but I can t find an article listing any that were confirmed by scientists. I understand if most fossils don t have feathers, but some do, and they would ve been able to decipher the colors using the dinosaur s melanosomes.
    I m looking to draw some dinos, but I can t find an article listing any that were confirmed by scientists. I understand if most fossils don t have feathers, but some do, and they would ve been able to decipher the colors using the dinosaur s melanosomes.
    3 answers · 1 week ago
  • Why do women lose their fertility after age thirty five when that is the perfect age to start a family?

    it makes absolutely no sense. why should women reach their peak of fertility in their teens and early twenties, when they have neither the time nor resources to raise children? most women don't achieve the financial means to start a family until their mid thirties or later, just when their fertility declines?... show more
    it makes absolutely no sense. why should women reach their peak of fertility in their teens and early twenties, when they have neither the time nor resources to raise children? most women don't achieve the financial means to start a family until their mid thirties or later, just when their fertility declines? how can nature be so out of sync with reality?
    20 answers · 2 weeks ago
  • How can I evolve to be physically stronger and faster?

    Best answer: You would have to do it by having children, and remove the weaker ones from your population. Repeat for about 20 generations (about 500 years). That's evolution by selection from existing genes, not mutations. If you want to do it with mutations (new genes), you're going to have to continue the process for... show more
    Best answer: You would have to do it by having children, and remove the weaker ones from your population. Repeat for about 20 generations (about 500 years). That's evolution by selection from existing genes, not mutations. If you want to do it with mutations (new genes), you're going to have to continue the process for 20,000 years.
    5 answers · 1 week ago