No description will totally capture all surgical specialties, but the general idea runs something like this:
Rises early, usually trying to get to the hospital around 6AM, to see the folks in the hospital. On days that they have surgery scheduled (usually specific days of the week) they start doing surgery as scheduled, as early as 6 or 7 AM, leaving the hospital visits until later in the day; the other days, they do the hospital visits and head to their office where they see folks that are potentially in need of surgery or following up after having had surgery.
Surgery itself involves getting into a scrub suit, then making connection with the operating room staff to make sure you know where the next surgery you're scheduled to do is going to happen. Once you've gone in and established that you've got the right person and the right procedure set up, you will oftyen go to the waiting area to talk briefly to the family members before doing the procedure. (Last time I let a colleague loose on my anatomy, they talked to my wife before hand, anyhow) Then you scrub up (8 minutes scrubbing the daylights out of your hands and arms from the fingers up to the elbows), rinse and gown up--there's a sterilized gown that you put on, along with the mask, hood and often shoe covers; then you put on the gloves (often two pair, now, in the age of HIV and increasingly rampant Hepatitis B), get to the patient's side and wait until adequate anesthesia is established. You're usually assisted by several individuals, some across the patient from you, some at your side. (It can get pretty crowded; that's one reason that I gave up doing surgery, personally.) You do what needs done, then when you're ready to close up the surgical wound, you wait until the sponges and tools and all are counted: if you're one short, you have to hunt until you find the missing object. You don't want to leave that whatever in the patient, after all. The surgery done, the customary thing to do is to ditch the gown and gloves and all, write down a record of what you did, then dictate a record of what you did, then get out to the waiting room and tell the family how things went, fielding the questions that they usually have. Most surgeons will go back in, check on the patient's status (usually, they're in the recovery area by this point) and then start preparing for the next procedure. A surgeon might go through this cycle several times in a given day.
Whether it's an office day or a surgery day, once you get done, most folks check in on the folks they have in the hospital, seeing how they are doing and if they need to be visited again over some issue or other: sometimes they do, sometimes they don't.
ON TOP OF ALL THAT, periodically you're the "Surgeon On Call" which means that anyone showing up in the emergency department with a surgical problem (and doesn't have a doctor that comes to that hospital to bear the load) becomes your task. Often, those surgical problems require immediate intervention--that's pronounced, do the surgery as quickly as possible. I've known colleagues to have to go 12 hours and more non-stop (sometimes 24 hours or more) before they can take a break.
On light days, you might put in 5 or 6 hours. Those are not common. On more normal days, figure 8-10, and often 12-14 hours. The rough days? Figure on going 20-24 hours.
It's not an easy life, trust me.
A physician myself, and one that knows a load of surgeons and has seen them at work for 25 years--and that used to do a little surgery as well.