The words "Jew" and "Hebrew" are synonyms.
In most languages,the equivalent of "Jew" is to some degree derogatory.
In Russian the use of the Russian equivalent of "Jew" has been criminalized "hate speech" for about 80 years right now (much like the American use of "N word" for Africans)
In English it was mostly derogatory and only started to lose the derogatory connotation about 100 years ago.
That's why, for example, the Jewish equivalent of the YMCA is known as YMHA
(Young Mens Hebrew Association)
Thus too -- the one Jewish poet who transcended "racism" and was able to reach an international audience in the Middle Ages was called
"Leo the Hebrew"
In Italian, it seems that the word equivalent to Jew does not exist.
All English New Testaments are translations.
Paul's letter was in Greek.
It may be worth taking a look at what he called it in Greek.
NOTE: for what its worth -- I just wrote "Jew" into Google Translate for Greek
it came out as Εβραίος
(Evraíos - Hebrew)
And doing the opposite - writing Εβραίος generates "Jew" in English.
NOTE: Keeping in mind that the New Testament is a collection of many different writers in several different periods,
looking in the English New Testament, it looks like at least one of the writers used what is translated as "Jew" to mean specifically the citizens of the Roman province of Judea ( 1/4 of the original land of Israel)
So - one translator writes that Jesus went to Galilee to escape Jews -- even though Galilee was actually just another Jewish province - populated and governed by Jews (other than the Roman occupying army)
So - it may be that the translators chose "Hebrews" for Paul's letter to be clear that it was to all the Jews rather than just to the people in the province of Judea.