It is disgusting that anyone would use your religious beliefs as a basis for mistreating you. And it's un-American. The US Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. So anyone who think abusing you is somehow "being American" is an idiot.
Overcoming bullying is not always easy. Generally, bullying is against school rules, but principals and teachers often take the attitude that being bullied is a normal part of growing up. It isn't. It's assault, which is a crime. And, if it's bad enough, could be grounds for a lawsuit against the school district and the principal personally. Do speak to the principal, explain the problem, and tell him or her that you are counting on clearly stated school policy to help you out.
Meanwhile, try to avoid being alone. Bullies always want to be sure that their victims can;t fight back. Try to make sure that you stick together with friends, that you go from class to class with other people. Be outgoing and make more friends. Bullies tend to prey upon people who are isolated. Reach out to other people. This will also make high school more bearable in general.
You have every right to be yourself. Always remember that people who are rude to you for what you are may be menacing, even frightening, but they cannot bring you down to their level.