The internet protocols are the same around the world. It is called "interoperability." In order to work AT ALL, the service providers in various countries MUST conform to the standards. It might not matter to you to know this, but if you did a web search for something called an "RFC" then you could find the "rules" for every protocol used on the internet. EVERY ONE of them.
There is no "type" on the internet. Here in the USA we have an old phrase: A chain is no stronger than its weakest link. Well, there is an internet equivalent: A connection is no faster than its slowest link. And this is where "routing" gets involved. Most of the time, connections use an optimized route based on "routers." The router is like a switchboard. It connects your computer to a network segment that sends your connection data to your selected destination. But that segment might have to route you again if your target isn't on its sub-net. In fact, you might need dozens of "hops" - like a runner in a relay race handing off the baton, where the baton represents your traffic and each runner is one hop.
Speed becomes an issue twice in this process. First, if any hop is unusually slow (i.e. the runner is slow) then that slows down your traffic. Second, if you need a lot of runners (a lot of hops) to get the baton (traffic) from point A to point B, each router has to receive complete packets before it can send them farther along towards their destination. This is called "store and forward" message transmission.
I'm going to bet that when you were still in Korea, you had a lot fewer hops to get to your server. Now, I'm betting you have a lot MORE hops to get there since you now have multiple international boundaries to cross. That boundary crossing makes a difference because some routers at national boundaries act as firewalls, blocking messages that they don't want to enter their national sub-net. Even though your connection succeeds, the hops and boundary delays add to the time for each portion of your traffic. And the odds are very great that the game folks use a sequence-number system to assure that they can resend any "lost" packets. That means their server can't send another piece of the traffic until it gets an ACK for the previous part. (That ACK is like an e-mail delivery receipt.)
I guess one could say that the "net" result is that your problem is distance and the number of hops you have to take. It is NOT a difference in the structure of the net, but rather of the INFRAstructure of the net.